This is worth read is directly copied from the Bon Appétit article:
11 Breadmaking Terms Every Serious Baker Should Know
Lame – French for “blade”; a special curved razor attached to a handle, used for slashing bread dough to create those signature patterns.
Boule – French for “ball”; a round loaf.
Gluten – Present in wheat, gluten is comprised of two proteins, glutenin and gliadin, which give bread dough its elasticity and the baked bread chewiness.
Autolyse – A process in which flour and water are mixed allowed to rest for a period of time, which results in better gluten formation and more structure in the final bread.
Poolish – A type of preferment, poolish is a wet sponge made of equal parts flour and water by weight and a small amount of commercial yeast.
Preferment – A portion of dough that is already populated with yeast (either wild or commercial) and added to freshly-mixed bread dough to accelerate fermentation and improve flavor.
Crumb – The pattern and size of holes inside of a loaf. Artisan breads made with high hydration dough typically have an open and irregular crumb.
Hydration – The ratio of water to flour by weight in a bread recipe. Commercial typically has a hydration of 60%, while artisan breads have a higher hydration resulting in a chewier texture and more open crumb. The more hydration the wetter the dough.
Proof – The final rise of bread dough after shaping the loaves and before baking.
Fermentation – The leavening process in which yeast and bacteria in the dough convert carbohydrates to carbon dioxide gas and alcohol, creating the airy texture of bread and developing flavor in the bread.
Oven Spring – The increase in volume of bread dough while in the oven, during which the yeast are still active. The greater the oven spring the airier the texture of the finished bread.
Got all that? Now go forth and bake: